However, there was no direct campaigning by candidates. Guerrero refrained from public speaking, in part because he was still suffering from the effects of a war wound in his chest, but more importantly so that those serving in state legislatures would not be dissuaded from voting for him because of his strong following in the popular classes.
Guerrero's following came to be called the "People's Party," which supported broad male suffrage, support for decisions of municipalities, and support for federalism and against the power of Mexico City. Their campaign literature extolled his record as a hero of the insurgency. The opposition to Guerrero was not just politically conservative in its stance, but openly racist and raising fears about his mixed-race, black and mestizo followers.
The election was annulled, and under the Plan de Perote , Vicente Guerrero assumed the presidency in Guerrero became president on 1 April , with conservative Anastasio Bustamante as his vice president.
Some traditional federalists leaders, who might have supported Guerrero, did not do so because of the electoral irregularities. The nasty racial slurs and disparagement of his character in the campaign of did not let up when he assumed the presidency.
In his inaugural address, he pointed to his long service to the nation fighting for independence, but also importantly to his holding of high office in independent Mexico. He said, "The representatives are to be found in all classes of the people, and the true titles of superiority, the only ones that cause distinction and preference, are discovered wherever talent and virtue appear.
The national treasury was empty and future revenues were already liened. Spain continued to deny recognition of Mexico's independence and threatened reconquest. Guerrero's supporters were strongly anti-Spanish and there had already been one order for their expulsion under the Victoria government. Guerrero called for the establishment of public schools, which would give access to education of Mexico's popular classes.
In the colonial era, education was exclusively in the hands of the Catholic Church and the main beneficiaries were elite men. Guerrero also called for land title reforms, industry and trade development, and other programs of a liberal nature.
Now president, Guerrero championed the causes of the racially oppressed and economically oppressed. He ordered an immediate abolition of slavery on September 16 of In central Mexico, there were few black slaves, so that the gesture was largely symbolic, but in the Mexican state of Texas, where Anglo-American slave-holding southerners were colonizing, the decree went against their economic interests.
During Guerrero's presidency, the Spanish tried to reconquer Mexico , but they failed, being defeated at the Battle of Tampico. The Spanish monarchy had the full power to appoint clerics in its overseas possessions through the papal grant of the Patronato Real. When Mexico obtained its independence, Roman Catholicism continued to be the only permissible faith. However, the question of the power of appointment of clerics was highly contested.
The Mexican government asserted that the right passed to the new national government, in what was termed the Patronato nacional. With Spain not recognizing Mexico's independence, the papacy claimed that the patronato reverted to itself, the original grantor.
The Spanish crown had systematically replaced elite American-born Spaniards in positions in the civil and religious spheres, so that anti-Spanish sentiment now fell on Spanish clerics. When Mexico expelled peninsular-born Spaniards in , many bishops and other members of the ecclesiastical hierarchy left, leaving all high church positions vacant until The lack of bishops and parish priests meant that the connection between Mexican Catholics and the institution of the church was damaged, weakening its authority and its influence among the vast number of poor parishioners.
In Alta California during the late colonial era the Franciscans had established missions from San Diego in the south to the San Franciscan bay area in the north.
In , indigenous in four central coast missions revolted against ill-treatment by non-indigenous authorities. The Chumash revolt was suppressed, the mission indigenous pardoned and urged to return to the missions, but the revolt was serious and challenged the narrative of peaceful mission indigenous.
The republic would largely adopt Spanish colonial policy with regard to the Apache, establicimiento , or the system by which the Spanish sought to settle the Apache and make them sedentary by offering these Apaches de Paz Peaceful Apaches goods and land in exchange for peace and abandonment of nomadic lifestyle.
Mexico faced an insufficient defense network against the Comanches and Apaches in the Northern States. While some peace treaties did exist between locals and los indios , the peace did not last long, as Apaches would often simply take their violence elsewhere when villages proved to be too difficult to raid.
The lack of appropriate defense against raids might not have been so large of a problem for the Republic, if establicimiento had not all but been forgone by the s, with post-independence s economic instability causing many regions to drastically reduce rations to the Apaches de Paz. The Apache were supplied with guns by US American merchants.
The Seven Laws transformed the federated republic into a unitary state known as the Centralist Republic of Mexico. Several states openly rebelled against these changes. The Texas Revolution was already underway when the Siete Leyes came into force, and the new powers of the Mexican central government were yet another grievance for their movement.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the current entity named United Mexican States, see Mexico. Main article: Provisional Government of Mexico Main article: Constitution of Mexico. Main article: Vicente Guerrero. December 3, Archived from the original on December 2, Retrieved July 17, Presidency of Mexico. March 31, Retrieved May 30, Retrieved January 24, Retrieved January 22, Origins of Instability in Early Republican Mexico.
Duke University Press , p. Archived from the original PDF on July 3, Retrieved July 4, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , p. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons University of Nebraska Press , p.
Hale, Mexican Liberalism in the Age of Mora. New Haven: Yale University Press pp. Mexican Liberalism in the Age of Mora.
New Haven: Yale University Press Archived from the original on 16 August Retrieved 6 June Henderson, "Church and State, " in Encyclopedia of Mexico , pp. Santa Clara: Santa Clara University. Apache adaptation to Hispanic rule. Penguin Press. Globalizing the Comanche empire.
Anna, Timothy. Mexican Studies 9, no. Forging Mexico, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press Kenneth J. Andrien and Lyman L. Johnson, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press Archer, Christon. Meyer and William H. New York, Oxford University Press Leslie Bethell , ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , pp. Costeloe, Michael P. Green, Stanley C.
Guardino, Peter. Guerrero's Peasants and National Politics, Guedea, Virginia. Jaques, Tony, ed. Duke University Press University of Florida Press Former sovereign or unrecognized states within the contemporary United States. United States territorial acquisitions Territorial evolution of the United States. Outline Index. Categories : Independent Mexico Former republics s in Mexico s in Mexico History of Mexico establishments in Mexico disestablishments in Mexico States and territories disestablished in 19th century in Mexico.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Santa Anna was captured days after the battle and signed under duress the Treaties of Velasco , which recognized the independence of Texas on May Despite that, Texas remained de facto independent until , when it was annexed to United States. On 17 January , a group of notables of the three states met close to Laredo.
They planned a secession from Mexico and the formation of their own federal republic composed of the three states, with Laredo as the capital. However, the legislatures of the states then departments did not take any constitutional action to support the creation of the new republic and instead asked the central government for help to quell the rebellion. The insurgents, in turn, asked for help from the president of the Republic of Texas , Mirabeau B.
Lamar , who gave them no support because Texas was looking for the recognition of its own independence from Mexico. Finally, after a series of defeats, on 6 November , Antonio Canales , Commander in Chief of the insurgent army, met with Mexican General Mariano Arista , who offered him the post of Brigadier General of the Mexican army to entice Canales to abandon his loyalty to the secessionists.
Canales accepted the offer, and the bid for independence was ended. In the following months, the Centralist Republic of Mexico agreed to terms granting California more autonomy and Alvarado recognition as governor in exchange for peace [ citation needed ].
After the agreement was settled, however, the Centralist government reneged on the deal [ citation needed ] , intending to replace Alvarado with Carlos Antonio Carrillo. This time military conflict broke out in Alta California now part of a "department" that included Baja California between Alvarado and Carillo supporters, and again the Mexican-appointed governor was removed and replaced with Alvarado.
Mexico subsequently recognized Alvarado's governorship in and California's increased autonomy as a region effectively ending the conflict. Alvarado remained governor until This government proved unpopular and a counterrevolutionary movement led by previous New Mexican governor and Albuquerque native Manuel Armijo rose in response with Armijo winning consecutive military victories and writing to the Mexican Central government requesting support and additional troops to quell the uprising.
With the support of federalist politicians in Sonora, Urrea gathered followers and traveled to Sinaloa in hopes of appealing to the federalist politicians there as well. However he was instead intercepted and defeated in Sinaloa by Centralist government forces and was taken prisoner effectively ending the rebellion in Sonora and Sinaloa. The Tabasco rebellion started in Like the other rebellions, it was led by Federalist rebels who were against the Centralist government being implemented in Mexico.
The rebels took several major cities and also asked for aid from the Government of Texas, who supported them with two boats. The then-Mexican President Anastasio Bustamante , in retaliation for this rebellion, closed the port of San Juan Bautista, which affected the economic life of the territory. This caused further agitation among the Federalist Tabasco authorities, who then on February 13, declared Tabasco's independence from Mexico.
This combined threat and promise culminated in the reinstatement of Tabasco into the Mexican Republic on December 2, But four years later, Tabasco again declared its independence in November as a protest to the lack of Central government assistance in resisting the American occupation of its coast earlier that same year.
Having failed to subdue the peninsula, Santa Anna then imposed a trade blockade. The blockade forced the Yucatecan authorities to negotiate with Santa Anna. The conflict in Yucatan was largely contained, with the Yucatecan government declaring victory. However, pockets of resistance continued to exist for another 50 years, when Mexican army troops destroyed the last Maya stronghold.
Engraved stone tells a few episodes of the Caste War between and Political turmoil continued. After being elected in , the Constituent Congress drafted a new Federalist constitution, much to the dislike of Santa Anna. Because of this, Santa Anna issued a pronuncimiento which disbanded the Congress in December and replaced the Congress with a new legislative body appointed by him.
Santa Anna claimed the constitution was "a charter that was to facilitate popular elections, provide order, and guarantee people's rights. Restrictions on who could belong to the Senate meant that only the wealthy, such as owners of landed estates, merchants, and miners could serve. Santa Anna personally had a strong commitment to education. When Santa Anna tried to dissolve it, the legislature claimed immunity and went into exile.
Herrera, recognizing the reality that Texas had been lost, tried to win his Government's recognition of the Republic of Texas as a means to prevent its annexation to United States. In response, opponents accused Herrera of attempting to sell Texas and Alta California. On December 29, , the United States annexed Texas to its territory. Mariano Paredes with the help of General Arrillaga, who was sent to secure the northern border, instead approached the city of Mexico , deposed De Herrera, and appointed himself as President.
One bright light on the international front was Spain's and the papacy's recognition of Mexico's independence in The French government demanded an extortionate amount of , pesos. In early the French Minister launched an ultimatum to the Government of Mexico from Veracruz: Mexico pay the claims of French nationals or its ports would be blockaded by the French fleet. Diplomatic relations were broken off on April 16, , and began a French blockade of Mexican ports of Veracruz and Tampico.
France sent Charles Baudin to negotiate a diplomatic exit with Mexico. Baudin conveyed a number of requests that were rejected by the Mexican Government.
Santa Anna offered his services to the nation to fight the French invasion. He scored a significant victory against them, injuring his left leg in a cannon bombardment that shot his horse dead from under him.
The leg was amputated to prevent gangrene, in botched surgery. His valor in action helped recuperate his political reputation from the disastrous loss of Texas. He was able to return to the presidency in because of it. Two treaties between France and Mexico, mediated by Great Britain, concluded the conflict in In the end, Mexico did pay France , pesos, but other issues were resolved between the two countries. The incorporation of the disputed territory of Texas into the United States in and the constant provocations of the administration of James K.
Polk triggered the events that led to war. During that year, tensions grew dramatically between Mexico and the United States. While the U. Army settled inside northern Mexican territory and began threatening war, the U. Mexico rejected the proposal and broke diplomatic relations with the U.
The first battle was fought on April 25, , to the North of the Rio Grande, in the place called Rancho de Carricitos. The battle caused the United States Congress to declare war on Mexico on May 13, ; Mexico for its part declared war on May 23 of the same year. Finally on August 22, , a new decree was issued that restored the Constitution of , which ended the Centralist system and gave way to the Second Federal Republic of Mexico Federal Republic.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mexican Republic. The Mexican Republic in The light-green areas are parts of Mexico that broke off to form Texas in the north and Yucatan in the south. The medium-green area in the north is disputed between Texas and Mexico. Part of a series on the. Spanish rule. First Republic. Second Federal Republic.
La Reforma Reform War French intervention. Main article: Siete Leyes. Territory proclaimed its independency. Territory claimed by the Republic of Texas. Territory claimed by the Republic of the Rio Grande. Texas Revolution. Mexican Federalist War. Main article: Texas Revolution. Main article: Republic of the Rio Grande. Main article: Revolt of New Mexico. Main article: Pastry War.